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Gender Violence and the Role of Football: A Call for Change

Gender violence remains a pervasive issue worldwide, affecting women across all sectors and societal levels. The relationship between gender violence and inequality is deeply interconnected, with harmful societal norms and power imbalances perpetuating a cycle of disrespect and abuse. Football, as a globally celebrated sport with a massive following, has the potential to serve as a catalyst for change, fostering a culture of equality and reducing violence against women. This article delves into the link between gender violence and inequality, its impact on football, and the role that football can play in promoting gender equality and reducing gender violence.

The Link Between Gender Violence and Inequality

Gender violence is intrinsically tied to societal attitudes and norms that perpetuate disrespect and inequality. Research by Jewkes et al. (2015) highlights that environments characterised by traditional gender roles, objectification, and limited opportunities for women create conditions where gender-based violence is more likely to occur. This connection is particularly evident in male-dominated sectors like football, where women may face harassment, discrimination, and violence on and off the field. Addressing these issues requires a multifaceted approach that tackles both the immediate symptoms of gender violence and the underlying societal norms that perpetuate it.

How Violence Affects Football

Gender violence has far-reaching implications for football, affecting the sport's culture, its participants, and its broader societal impact:

  1. Participation and Representation: Violence against women and minorities can deter them from engaging in football at all levels. A study by Lusted and Spaaij (2019) indicates that discrimination and harassment are significant barriers for marginalised groups in sports, limiting representation and perpetuating homogeneity within the sport.

  2. Career Progression: Violence and discrimination can hinder the advancement of women and minorities within the football industry. Kerr and Stirling (2019) highlight that gender-based violence and discrimination contribute to unequal opportunities and slower career progression for women, limiting the diversity of perspectives in leadership roles and stifling innovation.

  3. Toxic Culture: Football has long struggled with toxic fan behaviour, including sexism, racism, and homophobia. This toxicity creates unwelcoming environments for women and minorities, reinforcing harmful societal norms. Pope and Smith (2016) examine how fan culture can perpetuate these negative attitudes, contributing to an environment where women and minorities feel marginalised and unsafe.

  4. Psychological Impact: Experiences of violence and discrimination can take a significant psychological toll on women and minorities in football. Latimer et al. (2018) suggest that harassment and discrimination can lead to stress, anxiety, and burnout, affecting individual well-being and performance and diminishing the overall quality of the sport.

  5. Economic Impact: The underrepresentation of women and minorities in football can have broader economic consequences. Adriaanse and Schofield (2014) indicate that gender disparities limit sponsorships, revenue streams, and investment opportunities, damaging the sport's image and financial stability.

The Role of Football in Promoting Gender Equality

Football has the potential to drive cultural change and promote gender equality by using its global influence. Due to its broad appeal, football can challenge harmful societal norms and promote respect for women. Campaigns, educational programs, and partnerships with advocacy organisations can contribute to this cultural shift, reducing gender violence.

Increased visibility of female athletes and leaders can combat stereotypes and promote gender equality. Cooky et al. (2015) emphasised that representation in sports helps challenge traditional gender roles and inspires other women and girls to pursue their passions.

Football clubs and organisations can establish supportive environments by implementing policies against harassment and abuse, offering safe reporting mechanisms, and providing resources to help prevent and address gender violence. They serve as community focal points, offering opportunities to engage with residents and promote positive messages. Organising events and outreach programs focused on gender equality can help educate communities and foster dialogue and understanding.

Football organisations can leverage their platforms to advocate for gender equality and encourage allyship among men. Flood (2019) highlights the importance of engaging men as allies in the fight against gender violence, enabling them to advocate for women's rights and support initiatives that address gender inequality.

How Football Can Do Better

Football can address gender violence and promote gender equality by implementing structural changes:

  1. Equal Representation and Opportunities: Ensuring equal representation and opportunities for women in football is crucial. This includes increasing the visibility of women's football at all levels and ensuring equal pay and benefits for female players.

  2. Leadership and Governance: The sport needs more women in leadership positions, including coaching, management, and governance. Mentorship programs, leadership training, and networking opportunities can empower women to take on influential roles and shape the direction of the sport.

  3. Education and Awareness: Football organisations can implement educational programs to raise awareness about gender violence and inequality. Training sessions on respect, diversity, and inclusion can foster a culture of equality within clubs and leagues, addressing harmful attitudes and promoting inclusivity.

  4. Support Systems: Football clubs can establish robust support systems for women, providing safe reporting mechanisms, mental health resources, and access to support services. This supportive infrastructure can protect women and encourage them to pursue their passions in football.

  5. Role Models: Female football players can serve as role models, inspiring the next generation of girls and women to pursue their dreams in sports. Amplifying their voices and celebrating their achievements can challenge stereotypes and demonstrate that women belong at all game levels.

How Men Can Be Allies

Men have a crucial role to play as allies in the fight against gender violence and inequality. They can:

  1. Stand Beside Women: Men must stand beside women, channel their outrage against injustice, and actively advocate for change. By challenging their own biases and supporting initiatives that advocate for gender equality, men can contribute to a safer, more equitable world.

  2. Educate Themselves and Others: Men can educate themselves about the realities of gender violence and inequality, gaining a deeper understanding of the challenges women face. This awareness enables them to inform others, fostering a culture that respects and values women.

  3. Challenge Discriminatory Behaviour: Men can challenge discriminatory attitudes and behaviours in their personal lives and the football community. By rejecting toxic fan culture and supporting inclusive messaging, they can help create a more inclusive environment.

  4. Advocate for Equality: Men can leverage their influence to advocate for equal opportunities, support women's initiatives, and promote diversity in football's leadership and representation.


Gender violence and inequality are deeply intertwined, but they can be addressed through a multifaceted approach. Football offers a unique platform to challenge harmful norms, promote gender equality, and reduce gender violence. By addressing disparities in representation, leadership, and support structures, advocating for inclusivity, and challenging harmful attitudes, the football industry can create a safer, more equitable environment for women and contribute to the broader movement against gender violence.


  1. Jewkes, R., Flood, M., & Lang, J. (2015). "From work with men and boys to changes of social norms and reduction of inequities in gender relations: A conceptual shift in prevention of violence against women and girls." The Lancet, 385(9977), 1580-1589.

  2. Cooky, C., Messner, M. A., & Musto, M. (2015). "'It’s dude time!' A quarter century of excluding women’s sports in televised news and highlight shows." Communication & Sport, 3(3), 261-287.

  3. Kerr, G., & Stirling, A. (2019). "Supporting women in football: Breaking down barriers and tackling gender inequality." Sport Management Review, 22(5), 661-674.

  4. Lusted, J., & Spaaij, R. (2019). "Sport for social change and the development of marginalised communities: Evidence from football in the UK." Sport in Society, 22(10), 1594-1610.

  5. Pope, S., & Smith, A. (2016). "Football, feminity and fandom: Gendered experiences in a global sport." Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 40(4), 315-338.

  6. Latimer, M., et al. (2018). "Psychological impact of discrimination on women in sports: An overview." Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal, 26(2), 50-61.

  7. Adriaanse, J., & Schofield, T. (2014). "The impact of gender diversity on the board and leadership of national sport organizations in Australia." Journal of Sport Management, 28(3), 251-265.




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